Technical Pathway:

Carbon Dioxide Removal

Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques, or negative emission technologies (NETs), are a suite of natural and technological pathways to remove and sequester carbon dioxide (CO₂) from the air. Unlike carbon capture and storage, these techniques remove CO₂ directly from the atmosphere or enhance natural carbon sinks. Browse all 543 resources.
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Technical Pathway:

Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage

Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS) technologies involve the capture of carbon dioxide (CO₂) from fuel combustion or industrial processes, the transport of this CO₂ via ship or pipeline, and either its use as a resource to create valuable products or services or its permanent storage underground. Browse all 435 resources.
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Carbon Dioxide Removal

Afforestation / Reforestation

Afforestation is the conversion of abandoned and degraded agricultural lands into forests, while reforestation is the replantation of trees in deforested land. Both practices can contribute to negative emissions since the growth of additional plant sequesters atmospheric carbon dioxide and naturally sink it in their biomass and in the soil.
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BECCS

Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is a technique where biomass is grown and converted into electricity, heat, or fuel, and the carbon emissions from this conversion are captured and stored in geological formations or embedded in long-lasting products. The capture and storage process is similar to the approach ... Read More ▸
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Biochar

Biochar is a substance created when organic material like agricultural waste is burned in the absence of oxygen. That process, called pyrolysis, creates a carbon-rich product that is stable or biologically recalcitrant. By transforming biomass into biochar, the carbon in the plant material is locked up instead of being released ... Read More ▸
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Direct Air Capture

Direct air capture is the technique of scrubbing carbon dioxide directly from the sky through large mechanical facilities. The technique can be used to obtain carbon for making a byproduct or fuel. Direct air capture and storage (DACS) means storing that carbon dioxide in a long-term reservoir. The two main ... Read More ▸
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Enhanced Weathering

Enhanced weathering is a carbon dioxide removal technique that involves spreading pulverized silicate rocks across large tracts of land to accelerate the natural process of storing carbon as carbonate compounds on land or bicarbonate at sea.
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Ocean and Coastal CDR

Ocean based carbon dioxide removal methods include ocean alkalinization or enhancement, ocean up-welling, and enhanced kelp farming. Coastal blue carbon is the carbon captured by living coastal and marine organisms and stored in coastal ecosystems, such as salt marshes, mangroves, and seagrass beds.
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Ocean Iron Fertilization

Ocean Iron Fertilization is the process of adding iron filings to seawater to stimulate the growth of phytoplankton that absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide. Ocean fertilization seeks to take advantage of the ocean's natural carbon pump, which uses carbon dioxide at the sea surface and incorporates the carbon, via photosynthesis, into ... Read More ▸
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Soil Carbon Sequestration

Soil carbon sequestration is a process in which carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere and stored in the soil carbon pool. This process is primarily mediated by plants through photosynthesis, with carbon stored in the form of soil organic carbon.
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Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage

Carbon Capture and Storage

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the technological process of capturing carbon dioxide from a power plant or industrial activity and the storage of that captured carbon dioxide in an underground basalt formation, saline aquifer, depleted oil and gas reservoir, or sub-sea geologic formation.
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Utilization

Captured carbon dioxide can be utilized for the development of fuels, plastics, chemicals, and materials necessary for the built environment. Carbon dioxide is also used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) to increase the productivity of an oil reservoir.
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Transportation

Carbon dioxide can be transported by pipeline or ship for utilization or storage. The technologies involved in pipeline transportation are the same or similar to those used for transporting natural gas, oil, and many other commodities around the world.
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